A pioneer in the hedge fund industry who founded Pequot Partners in 1986, Arthur (Art) J. Samberg is the owner of Hawkes Financial, LLC, a family office in New York. Art J. Samberg holds an MBA from Columbia Business School and an SB in Aeronautics and Astronautics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), a department that conducts research on cutting-edge topics such as self-driving vehicles.
In 2016, MIT’s Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics published an article about the nature of automated vehicles, outlining the National Highway Transportation Administration’s five levels of automation as follows:
–Level zero. In level zero, the driver has complete control of the vehicle, from the steering and brakes to the throttle and motive power.
–Level one. Level one refers to function-specific automation, such as electronic stability control or brakes that automatically kick in to assist the driver with braking.
–Level two. The second level emphasizes the combined functioning of at least two primary functions in order to free the driver of these functions. A prime example is adaptive cruise control that works in tandem with lane centering.
–Level three. In level three, the driver begins to relinquish control of the vehicle’s major safety functions under specific environmental or traffic conditions. The driver must still be available to respond when conditions require driver control.
–Level four. In the final level, the vehicle is completely automated and is responsible for all safety functions during all roadway conditions. The driver only has to input navigation data or the final destination and does not have to be available to take over control of the vehicle at any point.